Internal Design of a Microprocessor

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The commercial microprocessor fabricated using the MOS technology is normally contained in a single chip. The microprocessor is comprised of a register section, one or more ALUs and a control unit. Depending on the register section the microprocessor can be classified either as an accumulator based or a general purpose register based machine.

In an accumulator based microprocessor such as the Intel 8085 and Motorola 6809, one of the operands is assumed to be held in a special register called the accumulator. All arithmetic and logic operations are performed using this register as one of the data sources. The result after the operation is stored in the accumulator. Read More  

The Microcomputer Hardware

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The microcomputer contains a microprocessor, a memory unit and an input/output unit. These elements are explained in the following in detail. The system bus contains three buses. These are the address bus, the data bus and the control bus. These buses connect the microprocessor to each of the memory and I/O elements so that information transfer between the microprocessor and any of other elements can take place.

On the address bus information transfer normally takes place only in one direction from the microprocessor to the memory or I/O elements. Therefore this is called a unidirectional bus. This bus is usually 16 to 32 bits wide. The data bus is a bidirectional bus. This bus is normally 8, 16, or 32 bits wide.

The control bus is used to transmit signals that are used to synchronize the operation of the individual microcomputer elements. Typical control signals include READ, WRITE, and RESET. Some signals on the control bus such as interrupt signals are unidirectional. While some others such as RESET may be bidirectional

Microprocessor Data Types

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Typical data types include signed and unsigned binary integers, binary coded decimal, American standard code for information interchange and floating point numbers. There are various types of data types in microprocessor. These are as follows, Unsigned and signed binary integers, BCD numbers, ASCII, Floating point numbers. Read More.

Evolution of the Microprocessor

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The Intel Corporation introduced the first microprocessor, the 4004- 4bits, in 1971. the 4004 evolved from a development effort while designing a calculator chip set. Soon after the 4004 appeared in the commercial market, three other microprocessors were introduced. These were the Rockwell International 4-bit PPS-4, the Intel 8-bit 8008, and the National Semiconductor 16-bit IMF-16. In the year 1973 the second generation computer came with MOS Technology like Motorola 6800and 6809, Intel 8085 and Zilog evolved. This 8 bit microprocessor fabricated using the NMOS technology. The third generation microprocessors were introduced in the year of 1978. These processors are 16 bits wide such as Intel 8086/80186/80286. These processors are designed with HMOS technology. Read More 

What is Microcontroller?

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Single chip microcomputers are also referred to as microcontrollers. The microcontrollers are typically used for dedicated applications such as automotive systems, home appliances and home entertainment systems. Typical microcontrollers therefore include on chip timers, A/D and D/A converters. Two popular microcontrollers are intel 875 and Motorola HC16. The 16- bit microcontrollers include more on chip ROM, RAM and I/O compared to the 8 bit microcontrollers.

Managing Global System

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AS business expand and technology continuously improving it is a major challenge for the management to cope with the business system.

Concerning Issues

The management of an organization needs to concern about the following issues in the global business system.


  1. cultural difference: regional, nationality, language etc

  2. Social  expectations: brand name expectations, work hours etc

  3. Political laws: data transfer and privacy laws, commercial regulations etc


  1. Standards: different EDI, e-mail, telecommunication standards etc.

  2. Reliability: phone networks, computing networks etc.

  3. Speed: data transfer rate, internet speed etc.   

Managing IS

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Implementing enterprise networking and the new information system has created problems as well as opportunities for organizations. It is an important and moral phenomenon for any organizations.

Problems Posed by IS 

Five main problems posed by IS are as follows-

  • Loss of management control over system

  • Connectivity and application integration challenges

  • Organizational change requirements

  • Hidden costs of enterprise computing

  • Scalability, Reliability, and Security

Some Solutions

The following solutions can help to overcome the problems posed by the IS

  • managing the change

  • education and training

  • data administration disciplines

  • planning for connectivity and integration

  • Effective cost and security management

  • Long term system planning  

Database Components

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Generally database management system has three components. These are as follows
1.      Data definition language
2.      Data manipulation language
3.      Data dictionary

Data definition language
The data definition language is the formal language programmers use to specify the content and structure of the database. 

Data manipulation language
A data manipulation language is used in conjunction with some conventional application programming languages to manipulate the data in the database. The most common example is structured Query Language. 

Data dictionary
Data dictionary is an automated or manual file that stores definitions of data elements and data characteristics.

Database Approach

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Database technology can cut through many of the problems a traditional file organization creates. A database is a collection of data organized to serve many applications efficiently by centralizing the data and minimizing redundant data. Database management system is simply the software that permits an organization to centralize data, manage them efficiently and provide access to the stored data by application programs. The logical view presents data as they would be perceived by end users or business specialists, whereas the physical view shows data are actually organized and structured on physical storage media.

Problems with Traditional File Environment

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The traditional file system had suffered a number disadvantage as firms tended to grow day by day. The problems with traditional file environment include-

Data redundancy: Data redundancy is the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files

Program data dependence: Program data dependence is the tight relationship between data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files.

Lack of flexibility: lack of flexibility is a traditional file system can deliver routine scheduled reports after extensive programming efforts but it can not deliver ad hoc reports or respond to unanticipated information requirement in a timely fashion.

Poor security: Because there is little control or management of data, access to information may be out of control.      

File Organization Terms and Concepts

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A computer system organizes data in a hierarchy that starts with bits and bytes and progresses to field, records, files and database. A bit represents the smallest unit of data a computer can handle. On the other hand a group of bits called a byte represents a single character which can be a letter, a number or another symbol. A grouping of character into a word, a group of words or a complete number is called field. A group of related fields comprises a record; a group of records of the same type is called a file. A group of related files makes up a database. A record describes an entity. An entity is a person, place, thing or object on which we maintain information.       

Social issues in an organization

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The social issues in an organization are a lot. Some of them are now discuss in the following:

Privacy: action: ensuring data protection laws and data privacy acts.

Scarcity:  action: providing computer knowledge and training.

Habit:  action: establishing company’s rules and regulations.

Health: action: regular health checks up for users.

Management Actions: A corporate code of ethics

A management should develop an IS specific set of ethical standards for each of the five moral dimension.

  1. Accountability and control.

  2. System quality.

  3. Information rights and obligations.

  4. quality of life

  5. Property rights and obligations.    

Briefly Discuss about Organization and IS

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Information systems have become integral, online, interactive tools deeply involved in the minute-to-minute operations and decision making of large organizations. The formal organizational unit or function responsible for technology service is called the information system department. The information system department is responsible for maintaining the hardware, software, data storage, and networks that comprises the firms IT infrastructure. The information system department consists of specialists, such as
- system analysts
- project leaders
- information system managers
- programmers
In many companies, the information system department is headed by a chief information officer. The CIO is a senior management position that oversees the use of information technology in the firm.

Types of Systems

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Four main kinds of information systems serve different organization level.

1. Operational-level systems
2. knowledge-level systems
3. Management-level systems
4. Strategic-level systems

Operational-level systems support operational managers by keeping track of the elementary activities and transactions of the organization, such as sales, receipts, cash deposits, payroll, credit decisions, and the flow of materials in a factory.

Knowledge-level systems support the organizations knowledge and data workers. The purpose of this is system is to help the business firm integrate new knowledge into the business.

Management-level systems serve the monitoring, controlling, decision making, and administrative activities of middle managers.

Strategic-level systems help senior management tackle and address strategic issues and long term trends, both in the firm and in the external environment.

Geographic Information System

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Geographic information system is a special category of DSS that use data visualization technology to analyze and display data for planning and decision making in the form of digital maps. The software can assemble, store, manipulate and display geographically referenced information tying data to point’s lines and areas on a map. GIS thus can support decisions on geographic issues like:

  1. Identifying the best site to locate a branch office based on number of households in a neighborhood.
  2. Targeting pockets of potential customers in a particular market area.
  3. Repositioning promotions and advertising based on sales.
  4. Determining the optimal location of a new distribution outlet. Read More   

DSS Applications

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Decision Support System uses in many types of applications. It can be use in supply chain management in any organization. Now discuss about DSS for supply chain management.
Supply chain decisions involve determining who, what, when, and where from purchasing and transporting materials and parts through manufacturing products and distributing and delivering those products to customers. Supply chain management system contains data about inventory and logistics of materials and finished goods.
In the year of 1994 IBM research developed an advanced supply chain optimization and simulation tool called the asset management tool to reduce inventory levels, yet maintain enough inventory in the supply chain to respond quickly to customer demands. Read More

Components of Decision Support System

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There are a lot of components of decision support system and these are very complex but all of these share specific features. Normally a typical decision support system has three components. These are as follows:

Database management: The decision support system database is a collection of current and historical data from a number of application or groups. It may combine with organizational data, external data and data from transaction processing system.

Model/Tools management: The decision support system model/tools contain the software tools that are used for data analysis. It may contain various OLAP tools, data mining tools, or a collection of mathematical and analytical models that easily can be made accessible to the DSS user.

User interface management: Decision support system user interface permits easy interaction between users of the system and the DSS software tools. A graphic, easy-to-use, flexible user interface supports the dialogue between the user and the DSS. Read More